Saturday, August 31, 2013

Whither Riley?

Bruce Hyde as Lt. Riley in 'The Conscience of the King' (1966)
I just have a short and somewhat trivial post today, as I continue work on further content for the weeks ahead. In the future I'm planning a lengthy review of Marc Cushman's new and controversial book, These Are The Voyages: TOS, Season One (2013), a detailed article about the writing process of 'A Private Little War,' an examination of the oft-made claim that the infamous 'Spock's Brain' was conceived as a comedy, and a look at the production staff's amusing reactions to William Shatner's struggle with his weight during the series.

My post today results from reading Marc Cushman's These Are The Voyages: TOS, Season One.  In the early pages of the book, the author makes the following claim about 'The Man Trap,' the first episode of Star Trek to air on NBC:
The second scene -- Kirk's first visit to the bridge in this episode -- features Bruce Hyde (as Lt. Kevin Riley) at the helm, a character introduced in the next episode.
--Marc Cushman with Susan Osborn, These Are the Voyages: TOS, Season One (2013), p.173.
A few pages later, in the chapter about 'The Naked Time,' Cushman repeats this unfamiliar claim:
We were given a glimpse of Lt. Kevin Riley in 'The Man Trap,' sitting at the helm, but with no dialogue (that shot was actually taken during the filming of this episode as a 'pick-up').
--Marc Cushman with Susan Osborn, These Are the Voyages: TOS, Season One (2013), p.184.
Memory Alpha certainly has no mention of this non-speaking appearance, either in its entry for actor Bruce Hyde or the character of Kevin Riley, but as a community-authored wiki, the website certainly isn't comprehensive.  When Hyde was interviewed for the website Star Trek History, Marc Daniels using him for a pick-up shot for 'The Man Trap' wasn't mentioned, either, but Hyde readily admits that his memory of Star Trek is a bit hazy, so the omission is hardly definitive.

Since Cushman and Osborn make no mention of any archival documentation in support of this claim, nor do they reference any interview comments from Hyde, Daniels, or any others in reference to it, it follows that the only way to confirm or debunk the claim would be to examine the episode itself.

In the scene from 'The Man Trap' identified by Cushman and Osborn -- Kirk's first visit to the bridge -- William Shatner, Leonard Nimoy, and Nichelle Nichols are the only three actors to appear with the exception of one shot which occurs early in the scene and is pictured below:

Still from 'The Man Trap' (1966)
Dedicated Star Trek fans will immediately notice that the helm station isn't even seen in this shot. The actor in the foreground is sitting at the navigator's station. They'll also notice that the young man at the navigator's station isn't Bruce Hyde at all -- for one thing, his eyes are the wrong color -- but instead a background actor and occasional stunt performer by the name of Budd Albright, who later appears in a different uniform as another poor victim of the salt vampire.

Perhaps the book misidentified the scene in question? I entertained this possibility, but the episode doesn't bear it out. The navigation and helm stations are seen in the opening of the episode, but they are manned by Uhura (Nichelle Nichols) and Leslie (Eddie Paskey). The helm is seen one last time near the end of the episode, but there it is manned by Mr. Sulu (George Takei). The arm of someone at the navigator's station can be barely seen, but I have my doubts that it belongs to Bruce Hyde.

Images courtesy of Trek Core.


These Are The Voyages: TOS, Season One (Marc Cushman with Susan Osborn, 2013)

Friday, August 23, 2013

Don't Know Much About (Vulcan) Philosophy

The Vulcan IDIC seen in close-up in 'Is There in Truth No Beauty? (1968)
For many Star Trek fans the Vulcan philosophy of IDIC (short for Infinite Diversity in Infinite Combinations) symbolizes what scholar Jennifer Porter calls the program's "ideal for tolerance of diversity." Regardless of fandom's appropriation of the concept, however, it is no secret that Gene Roddenberry's introduction of the IDIC was motivated less by philosophical aims than it was commercial ones.

The IDIC philosophy and related jewelry first appeared in the seventh episode produced during the third season of Star Trek, 'Is There In Truth No Beauty?' Although the writing credit went solely to newcomer Jean Lisette Aroeste, the IDIC was actually the invention of series creator Gene Roddenberry, who specifically re-wrote the teleplay to feature the IDIC medallion. Roddenberry already had plans to sell IDIC jewelry to Star Trek fans through his mail order business, Lincoln Enterprises, but before he could do that he had to get the concept on the air.

Roddenberry first tried to include the IDIC at the end of 'Spock's Brain,' the sixth episode produced during the third year, and ultimately the first episode of the season to be broadcast. In a July 10, 1968 memo to Fred Freiberger, Roddenberry outlined his idea for a scene with the IDIC. Perhaps emphasizing the importance the jewelry had to Roddenberry, the memo was titled 'Spock's Medallion.'

This proposed epilogue began with Uhura presenting Spock with 'a boxed item from the junior officers of the vessel, which they have had made up to show their delight that Spock has been brought back to life.' Inside the box, of course, is the IDIC medallion, which Roddenberry says 'has great meaning to all Vulcans' and is 'like the 'cross' to Christians and similar symbols to other religions and creeds.' Roddenberry's memo goes on to elaborate on the scene:
Chekov is proud that his research on it was correct and Spock admits it is perfectly executed. We may or may not have Spock mention that his original Vulcan IDIC medallion given to him by his father at his Vulcan 'Bar Mitzvah; was lost in some early spaceship disaster or adventure. 
The reason for junior officers presenting it is so that Kirk, McCoy, and Scotty can be curious about it and its meaning. We may assume that they have seen this symbol or heard about it, but since Vulcans are not prone to chatter about their philosophy, not too many people know the real meaning and symbology [sic].  
Prompted by the fact that Chekov’s clever research has already revealed much about it, Spock begins to explain some of the symbology [sic]. Spock, genuinely moved by the gift and by certain relationships of it to the story we have just seen, becomes more and more articulate and is finally chattering away like a human.  
We can have some humor here as Kirk, McCoy and Scotty try to break in with ship’s business, and for the first time in our series, Spock won’t let anyone get a word in edgewise. This leads to your suggested final line of McCoy’s wishing he had not connected Spock’s mouth.
Freiberger elected to ignore Roddenberry's story suggestion, likely because it was too late to implement in the episode. Paramount's mandate that the series now complete each episode on a strict six day shooting schedule made it difficult to execute changes on the fly, and by the time Roddenberry's memo was delivered, it was already the third day of photography on 'Spock's Brain.' It didn't help that the scene was only in the form of a rough outline, not script pages that could be put in front of the camera.

Undeterred, Roddenberry decided to revise the script for the next episode to be shot ('Is There In Truth No Beauty?') to include the IDIC. Roddenberry's script revisions (which were unusual during the third season, in which he still dictated story memos and co-wrote two episodes, but was no longer doing rewrites) were delivered at the last minute, and when the show's two stars got ahold of them, a serious conflict erupted on set. Director Ralph Senensky later described the situation:
Our first day of filming, Tuesday, July 16th, arrived, and I was greeted with a mutiny on the Enterprise. Bill Shatner and Leonard Nimoy had very strong objections to a portion of the scene we were scheduled to do that day and were refusing to film. Since the objection was to dialogue involving a piece of jewelry that Gene Roddenberry had designed, he was summoned to the set. (I have since learned that Leonard Nimoy first phoned producer Fred Freiberger to tell him of the problem. When Freiberger refused to take any action, Leonard called Roddenberry.) The morning was spent in a round table war with the six characters involved in the scene plus Gene and me. But the battle was strictly Bill and Leonard vs Gene. Bill and Leonard felt Gene was using the scene as a promotional commercial for a pin he had designed; the pin was part of Leonard’s costume. Gene vehemently denied these accusations, but the guys were adamant in their refusal to be a part of something they considered to be commercially oriented.
--Ralph Senensky, Is There In Truth No Beauty? (2011)
William Shatner offered his own perspective on the situation in his book, Star Trek Memories:
I got my script change, read the new scene and with my jaw still hanging open, I called Fred down to the set, asking him, 'What's this IDIC thing about?' I knew that Lincoln Enterprises would soon be selling these things, and there was no way that I was going to muck up a perfectly good story line just so we could include Gene's rather thinly veiled commercial. With that in mind, I flatly refused to do the scene. Freiberger hemmed and hawed about the difficulties involved in re-revising the script, but as I spoke to him recently for this book, he finally admitted that he was actually relieved that I wouldn't do the scene. It was probably the first time in history that a producer was glad to be dealing with a 'difficult' actor...
Leonard and I had both seen through Gene's marketing ploy, and one after another we'd refused to play the scene. Still, when Gene came to the set, he did his very best to push it through. To his credit, Roddenberry was completely honest about the situation and didn't try to mask his free publicity scam behind any half-baked creative half-truths. He simply stated that Lincoln Enterprises would soon be marketing these medallions, and that he'd really appreciate our cooperation in getting the product into this storyline.
So I went through a great deal of soul-searching and teeth-grinding over the situation, and finally I just had to say, 'Gene, I'm sorry, but I can't do this.'  Roddenberry accepted my refusal, but kept working on Leonard.
--William Shatner with Chris Kreski, Star Trek Memories (1993), p.287-289
With Shatner refusing to play the scene, it ultimately fell to Leonard Nimoy to be the pitchman for Roddenberry's jewelry. However, Nimoy had his own objections to the idea, which he recalled in his book, I Am Spock:
Certainly, I was all in favor of the philosophy behind the IDIC-- but not the fact that Gene wanted me to wear the medallion because he wanted to sell them through his mail-order business, Lincoln Enterprises. Where the scene had been problematic creatively for me, it was now problematic ethically. While I wouldn't argue with the IDIC concept, I was troubled that I had opened the door and let in a new kind of animal while trying to get rid of another.
--Leonard Nimoy, I Am Spock (1995), p.123
With both of his leading men refusing to go before the cameras, and half a day of filming lost to the argument, Roddenberry agreed to postpone the scene until later in the schedule so that he could rewrite it. Ultimately, Leonard Nimoy agreed to do this new version of the scene, although he wasn't thrilled by it:
Although I didn't appreciate Spock being turned into a billboard, I at least felt that the IDIC idea had more value than the content of the original scene. We filmed the scene as Gene had rewritten it. But the whole incident was rather unpleasant; Roddenberry was peeved at me for not wanting to help his piece of mail-order merchandise get off to a resounding start, and Fred Freiberger was peeved at me for going over his head.
--Leonard Nimoy, I Am Spock (1995), p.123-124
William Ware Theiss concept sketch for the IDIC (1968)
Although Ralph Senensky indicates that the IDIC medallion was designed by Roddenberry, the book The Art of Star Trek (1995) suggests that the design was actually a collaboration between Roddenberry and costume designer William Ware Theiss, including the above sketch by Theiss on p.xii. To be fair, the triangle-circle concept had been one Roddenberry had been mulling over since the first season of the series, as indicated in this memo to Matt Jefferies:
To: Matt Jefferies
Date: December 12, 1966
From: Gene Roddenberry
Dear Matt:
Would like to see a greater use of symbols, some design of significant form and color, used to identify and tie together the particular planet cultures, alien vessels, other Earth vessels, organizations, etc. As always, would appreciate you coordinating with costume, property, etc. A handy example: In "Return of the Archons," the law-givers and the Society of Landru could have been characterized by a symbol, say an unusual triangle-circle, which could have then given us unity by allowing it to appear on their rugs, possibly on their staffs, certainly on the walls of Landru's palace. As we discovered in the past, this trick has a way of unifying things, gives it a sense of greater reality, gives the director things to play to, and furnishes guide posts for the audience. For example, an upcoming one is the other vessel in "Space Seed." Can we do anything here?
Gene Roddenberry
--Stephen Whitfield and Gene Roddenberry, The Making of Star Trek (1968), p.127-128
Lincoln Enterprises IDIC advertisement (1969)
Roddenberry soon began selling the IDIC pendants, as indicated by this advertisement for the 'Vulcan Pendant' (which it solely credits to Roddenberry) in the 'Official Star Trek Catalog #2' offered by Lincoln Enterprises. The description of the item was similar, although not exact, to the one Roddenberry had included in his July 10, 1968 memo to Fred Freiberger, which described the IDIC:
SYMBOLOGY [sic] OF THE IDIC. There are two basic shapes and two basic colors and textures, i.e., the circle and the triangle. Generally, they represent that all things meaningful or beautiful are created by the joining together of different things. The pyramid can represent man and logic while the circle represents all of creation, i.e., man and creation joined together to create beauty. Also, the triangle-pyramid represents man and the circle represents woman and the jewel represents the beauty that their joining together is capable of creating. Or it can mean the truth which comes out of the blending of different ideas and creeds or the strength and beauty that comes out of the joining of different races, or the rich life which comes out of surrounding oneself with friends who have ideas different from your own and the rich cross-fertilization which occurs in such associations. 
The Vulcan in it, is that the glory of creation is in its infinite diversities and infinite combinations possible. As such, the IDIC represents and idea of universal brotherhood far beyond that represented by any other symbol we know of.

birdofthegalaxy's IDIC pendant with quarter for scale (2012)
Thanks again to the helpful community at the TrekBBS. Among them, Star Trek History contributor alchemist found the source of the IDIC concept art, Star Trek: Phase II co-executive producer Gregory L. Schnitzer pointed out and transcribed the memo from The Making of Star Trek, and author Christopher L. Bennett helped determine the design lineage of the IDIC. Without their help, this post would have undoubtedly been delayed yet another week.

Update (8/24/2013): Thanks to Gregory L. Schnitzer, I can reproduce a portion of the IDIC scene not included in the final version of 'Is There In Truth No Beauty?' below:

Busy with the search for expressing her thoughts, Miranda's hand touches the medallion pinned to Spock's breast. She touches it carefully, as though identifying it. McCoy sees the fleeting gesture her hand makes on contact with the medallion. He is very intent on her action. 

Spock pulls back, afraid he may have scratched her. 

Forgive me. I forget that dress uniforms can injure. 

No, I was merely looking at your Vulcan IDIC, Mister Spock. 
(looks up, curiously) 
Is it a reminder that as a Vulcan you could mind-meld with the Medeusan much more effectively than I could? 
(to the others, but smiling) 
It would be most difficult for a Vulcan to see a mere human take on this exciting a challenge. 

(to Spock) 
Interesting question. It is a fact that you rarely do wear the IDIC. 

I doubt that Mister Spock would don the most revered of all Vulcan symbols merely to annoy a guest, Dr. Jones. 

(to Miranda) 
In fact, I wear it this evening to honor you, Doctor.


Indeed. Perhaps even with those years on Vulcan, you missed the true symbology. 
(indicates medallion) 
The triangle and the circle... 
...different shapes, materials, textures...represent any two diverse things which come together to create here...truth or beauty. 
(indicating the parts, looks up) 
For example, Doctor Miranda Jones who combined herself and the disciplines of my race, to become greater than the sum of both. 

Kirk can see Miranda isn't fully sold on Spock's intentions 
...he changes the subject. 

Very interesting, I might even say...fascinating. 

(At this point the scene picks up as aired.)

These pages originate from a draft sold by Lincoln Enterprises which bears the date of July 16, 1968. They may reflect Roddenberry's original version of the IDIC scene, which he was forced to change to appease Leonard Nimoy. If this is the case, then the pages were certainly delivered at the last minute, since July 16, 1968 was the day of the on set controversy.

On the other hand, these pages may represent Roddenberry's rewrite of the IDIC scene, written later in the day, after the executive producer agreed to table the scene and move on. Since these pages represent a longer version of the scene, rather than a complete rewrite, I suspect this is the case. They also do not reflect William Shatner's memory that the original version of the scene featured Kirk bestowing the IDIC 'upon an absolutely thrilled recipient,' although readers of Star Trek Memories will know that Shatner's recollections in it are often mistaken.

Without returning to the UCLA archives, however, it's impossible to know the answer. Hopefully, I will be able to return to California soon and have the time do so.

Images courtesy of birdofthegalaxy.


The Gene Roddenberry Star Trek Television Series Collection (1964-1969)

The Making of Star Trek (Stephen Whitfield and Gene Roddenberry, 1968)

Star Trek Memories (William Shatner with Chris Kreski, 1993)

I Am Spock (Leonard Nimoy, 1995)

The Art of Star Trek (Judith and Garfield Reeves-Stevens, 1995)

Star Trek and Sacred Ground: Explorations of Star Trek, Religion and American Culture (Jennifer E. Porter and Darcee L. McLaren, 1999)

Is There In Truth No Beauty? (Ralph Senensky, 2011)

Monday, August 5, 2013

The Evolution of 'Space Seed'

Ricardo Montalban in 'Space Seed' (1967)
My work schedule is set to be a heavy one for the next two weeks, so don't expect any new articles until later this month. To tide you over, I thought I'd link to some of the excellent research Maria Jose and John Tenuto have been showing off at the official Star Trek website about the development and production of the episode 'Space Seed' and the 1982 follow-up, Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan. Their work first came to my attention when io9 interviewed John Tenuto about his Star Trek-related research in March, and will be of interest to anyone reading this blog.

Part one of their research can be found here, while part two can be found here.

To complement their work, I thought I would post a few excerpts from the December 13, 1966 de Forest Research memo for 'Space Seed.'
Page 13, Scene 27:
A Sikh probably. A 'Sikh' is a member of the Sikh religion, not a racial type, any more than a Roman Catholic is a racial type. They are distinguish-able physically only because one of the tenets of their religion is that men do not shave or cut their hair.
Page 21, Scene 35: 
Your Earth was on the edge of a 'dark ages.' See 19.35 where the days for this is set in the 1990’s. It is difficult to believe that a ship of this complexity could have been built only 30 years in the future during the press of a major world conflagration.
Page 27, Scene 46:
Wasn't until a dozen years later that the first Alpha Centauri expedition was launched. Proxima Centauri is the closest star to our sun, 4.30 light years away.  Alpha Centauri is 4.33 light years away. On the basis of present astronomical measurements, neither sun is thought to support any planetary system. Suggest: first interstellar expedition.
Page 28, Scene 46: 
The scientists encouraged carefully selected marriages...And our patient?  One of those children. I the events recounted took place in the 1990’s, these eugenics experiments would have been going on right now in order to produce children who would be adults at the time of the launching of 'The Botany Bay.' See 19/35, 27/46.
Page 38, Scene 59: 
Sibahl Khan Noonien – This name is not Sikh or Indian in form. 'Khan' is a Mongol title which has found its way into some Muslim names in India and Pakistan. For proper name suggest: Govind Bahadur Singh. All Sikhs use the name Singh after their own sir name.
Page 57, Scene 96: 
Kirk runs in from behind...gun in hand – With Kirk armed, this scene is specious since all Kirk has do is shoot him down, which logically he would do to maintain the safety of the Enterprise. Suggest reason be found for Kirk not using the gun.
Image Courtesy of Trek Core.


The Gene Roddenberry Star Trek Television Series Collection (1964-1969)

Star Trek's First (Associate) Producer

Byron Haskin in the documentary miniseries Hollywood (1980)
Byron 'Bun' Haskin may not be a name that registers on the radar of many Star Trek fans, but as the Associate Producer of 'The Menagerie' he was an important early contributor to the series. In the book Inside Star Trek: The Real Story, Bob Justman remembers running into Haskin on his way out from an interview with Gene Roddenberry for the Associate Producer job:
Before leaving, I recommended my friend, director and postproduction photographic effects whiz Byron Haskin. 
In an odd coincidence, on my way out of the studio, I met Byron on his way in.
'Hi, Bun. What are you up to?' 
He was his usual crusty self. 'Hi, Bobby. I'm gonna see some guy with a really weird name, Rodenberg or Rosenberry . . . or whatever. I don't know. Probably another rank amateur who doesn't know diddley [sic] and wants me to save his ass. He's looking for an associate producer type for some kind of science-fiction show.' 
'Well, good luck, Bun.' I smiled. I didn't mention where I'd just been. I went back to work on The Outer Limits, and Byron got the Associate Producer job with Gene.
--Bob Justman, Inside Star Trek: The Real Story (1996), p.30
Justman's background was as an assistant director for television, including The Outer LimitsThe Thin Man, and The Adventures of Superman. In 1964, he had no experience as an Associate Producer. Neither did Haskin, but as a veteran director and special effects artist, Haskin was more than qualified for the job.

In the thirties and forties, Haskin rose through the ranks at Warner Bros. until he became the head of the studio's special effects department. During his tenure there, Haskin was nominated for four consecutive Best Effects Oscars and given a Technical Achievement Award for developing a triple head background projector in 1939. In 1948, Haskin transitioned to directing, and by 1964 he was a veteran director who had made a number of recognizable science fiction movies, including The War of the Worlds (1953), Conquest of Space (1955), and Robinson Crusoe on Mars (1964).

Haskin had this to say about being hired for the position when he was interviewed in 1984, shortly before his death:
(Gene) Roddenberry, who had the idea, who eventually formulated the whole series, called me. He knew my reputation as a special effects expert and a director of science fiction, and asked me if I would like to be an advisor in the preparation. He didn't have any staff or anything together at the time. I said, 'Yes, sure.' Why not? What you need one one of these shows, to ramrod them through, is an understanding person who knows when to say -- 'Take all the time you want' -- or if you're noodling, say -- 'Cut it out and let's get going.'
Bobby Justman and Lee Katzin, who had alternated as assistant directors on OUTER LIMITS were both sharp guys. So I told Roddenberry he needed Justman, and he put him on. Justman was on for the pilot, and then he went to producing himself. I was there also.
--Byron Haskin, Interviewed by Joe Adamson, A Director's Guild of America Oral History (1984), p.280
Justman and Haskin did work together on The Outer Limits, but according to Inside Star Trek: The Real Story, it was Herb Solow who made the decision to bring Justman aboard as assistant director, not Roddenberry. Solow does say that he chose Justman after checking for recommendations from 'producer and director friends around town,' one of whom may have been Haskin.

In the same interview, Haskin described his function on the pilot episode:
I supervised the planning of special effects, worked with NBC color people, and was sort of the standby expert -- I did not have any further function than that.
I don't think I had screen credit, because I didn't want screen credits that didn't say 'Directed by -- .' (Laughs) So I was on it two or three months, got some good money out of it, and had a lot of fun. 
--Byron Haskin, Interviewed by Joe Adamson, A Director's Guild of America Oral History (1984), p.280
Byron Haskin's credit on 'The Menagerie, Part II' (1966)
While Haskin doesn't have credit on the released version of the original pilot, he is credited as an Associate Producer (alongside Bob Justman) on 'The Menagerie, Part II," which incorporated a great deal of footage from the original pilot.

Bob Justman corroborates Haskin's account that Haskin supervised the planning of the pilot's special effects in Inside Star Trek: The Real Story:
Justman met with Roddenberry and Associate Producer Haskin to question the show's creator closely about how he wanted various elements of the pilot's production handled: which effects were necessary and which others could be eliminated or revised to make them more doable.
 --Herb Solow and Bob Justman, Inside Star Trek: The Real Story (1996), p.34
On the other hand, the book doesn't portray Haskin's time as Associate Producer as anything close to 'a lot of fun.' On the contrary, Justman describes the 'escalating tension' between Roddenberry and Haskin, which was apparent as early as the preproduction phase of the pilot:
'You can't do it that way,' Byron would say to Gene.
'Why not?'
Byron folded his arms across his chest. 'Because it can't be done that way. I've been in this business forty years. You can't reinvent the wheel.'
Gene would look at him and then me, exasperated.
So later, when Byron and I were alone, I'd step in, gently. 'You know, we're all after the same thing, the effect that Gene wants to see. It's not how we end up doing it; it's the final result that counts. Maybe you can find another way to do it, Bun. Or maybe you can dream up an even better effect--and one not so expensive.'
Byron would harumph a bit and allow as how he could try; and sometimes, he'd come up with an answer to the problem. And sometimes not. But it was like pulling teeth. Gene greatly disliked going through the same motions consistently.
--Bob Justman, Inside Star Trek: The Real Story (1996), p.34
In his 1984 interview, Haskin seems to imply that he only took the Star Trek job on a short-term basis, taking the money for a few months work and forgoing screen credit when it was done. Inside Star Trek: The Real Story suggests it was Roddenberry's decision not to have Haskin back for the second pilot and subsequent series, not Haskin's, in the following exchange between Roddenberry and Justman:
'Great news, Bob! We're going to make another Star Trek pilot.'
'Wonderful, Gene. I'm very happy for you.'
'I want you with me again, and this time you have to be my Associate Producer. I won't take no for an answer.'
'But what about Byron?'
'He won't be back, period. You're the one I want.'
It was Gene's ball game and he had decided to keep Haskin out of the lineup. It stood to reason; the two of them didn't get along. Gene reassured me that I wasn't cutting my friend out of the running.
--Bob Justman, Inside Star Trek: The Real Story (1996), p.61
Whatever the circumstances of Haskin's departure, he seems to have kept watching the series when it finally premiered the fall of 1966.  He had this to say about the evolution of the program two decades later:
What happened between that and the purchase of the series, I don't know. In the warfare of selling it to a network, a great deal of the original excellence was lopped off, I thought. It was pretty well made later, but nothing near the class of the original pilot film, because the standards were lower. They compromised in every direction. Jeff Hunter, who was playing the guy -- I didn't think he was a ball of fire anyhow. 
Like OUTER LIMITS, it fought through a certain hit and miss interest, and then took off. It didn't really go to town the first half season, but by fidelity to the concept and continued exposure of the Mr. Spock character with the phony ears -- Leonard Nimoy -- and so forth, it caught on. The audience began to show an interest in the weirdos -- that's what the kids liked. Teenage kids became aficionados. Geez, it's a classic now.
Roddenberry supervised all the stories for a while, like Stefano did, and Roddenberry was a class concept man. He was never the writer Stefano was, but he had good concepts -- he avoided the comic strip kind of thinking that goes with a great deal of this stuff. 
--Byron Haskin, Interviewed by Joe Adamson, A Director's Guild of America Oral History (1984), p.281.
After Haskin departed Star Trek in early 1965, the Hollywood veteran eased his way into retirement. From 1965 to 1967 his only credit was on 'The Menagerie, Part II.' Then, in 1968, he completed his last two directing assignments: The Power, a feature film produced by his old friend, George Pal, and an episode of The New Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. His last credit was in 1969, as the co-writer of a film called The Great Sex War.

Image from 'The Menagerie, Part II' courtesy of Trek Core.


Byron Haskin, Interviewed by Joe Adamson, A Director's Guild of America Oral History (1984)

Inside Star Trek : The Real Story (Herbert F. Solow and Robert H. Justman, 1996)